Linotar Range Treatment System


Psoriasis is a common skin disorder affecting more than 2% of the global population. This means that well over 150 million people worldwide could be affected. Is it a disease caused by deficiencies in the immune system, inherited genes, or perhaps by a skin barrier (epidermis) that is leaky and not properly formed?

Looking at the skin of a psoriasis patient, the lesions are red and scaly. The epidermis is thickened because the cells in the bottom (basal) layer of the epidermis divide to rapidly giving the skin a scaly appearance. The red colour of the skin is due to inflammation, telling us the immune system is involved.

We know that genetics are involved. So it seems that there are at least two schools of thought, one considers the immune system to play the major role, the other thinks it is the skin barrier that calls the shots.

The question now arises: Does psoriasis start when the cells of the top layer of the skin (epidermis) behave abnormally and the immune system simply responds, or, does the immune system somehow react to disrupt the epidermis?

Is the answer perhaps that it is an interaction between the skin barrier, the immune system and the genes?

Structure and function of the epidermis

It is mostly made up of 4 layers as the stratum lucidum only occurs where the skin is thickened as in under the feet.

After the cells of the basal layer of the epidermis divided, the cells change shape and function and are modified to form a structure simulating a wall of brick and cement.The ?bricks? are held in position by protein rivets (corneodesmosomes) and are surrounded by lipids. All of this is to a large extent made possible by a remarkable protein called Filaggrin that is formed in the granular layer. Filaggrin plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of the epidermal cells to form a secure barrier.

Ref. 1: Filaggrin in the frontline: role in skin barrier function and disease Sandilands A et al Journal of Cell science 122, 1285-1294. Published by The Company of Biologists 2009 doi:10.1242 / jcs.033969.

Ref. 2: One remarkable molecule: Filaggrin Brown SJ and WH Irwin McLean J Invest Dermatol Mar 2012; 1329 PT 20 751-762.

The “bricks” are cells (corneocytes) made up of keratin and are surrounded by “cement”, lipids that are made up of free fatty acids, cholesterol and ceramides to form a barrier that keeps unwanted substances and organisms out. They also prevent excess water loss whilst at the same time fending harmful microbes from causing infection.

Ref. 3: Elias& Williams The inside-Out of the skin What is the skin barrier, and does it matter. )an 7,2013. Illustration by Jessica C. Kraft.

However, in skin diseases like psoriasis, the genetic material that allows for the formation of filaggrin is suppressed (or down regulated) and this means that the formation of the top layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC) is not properly formed.

The bricks and cement are not laid down; the rivets that hold the cells together are not formed resulting in the cells shedding prematurely. Natural moisturing factor that are usually contained within the cells of the stratum corneum is absent leaving the skin porous, dry and flaky resulting in more water loss. This usually referred to as Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL).

Where it usually takes about 28 days for cells to move from the bottom (stratum basale) to the top (stratum corneum) to peel off, it can take as little as 3-4 days in the case of psoriasis.

With this cacophony taking place messages are sent to the basal layer of the epidermis to provide more cells to the top to help form a barrier, resulting in excess, immature cells arriving at the top causing more trouble. Whilst this is happening the immune system springs into action sending pro-inflammatory molecules in an emergency exercise to try and restore normality. A vicious circle of events, if ever there was one.

The Linotar Range Treatment System can help to restore the normal function of the epidermis

How is this possible you may well ask so, let’s return to the structure of the epidermis:

“……….it is important that we do not get so carried away with our new therapeutic tools that we forget some tried and trusted old friends. Coal tar is one such old friend that is of risk of becoming distinctly unfashionable in the era of biologics, but I suggest we do so at our peril”. (Richard Groves, Editor of the Journal of Dermatological Treatment (2004) 15,7).

Another important player is the patented Emzaloid trans dermal delivery system which ensures that the active ingredient in Linotar Gel 1%, coal tar passes through the top layer of the epidermis and when it gets to the granular layer it up-regulates or switches relevant genes on to activate filaggrin (our hero molecule). Filaggrin then orchestrates the proper formation of the upper layer of the epidermis to ensure a normal skin milieu. This is a bit like the Wizard of 0z who waves his magic wand to repair and restore the epidermis to its former glory.

Ref. 4: Saunders J. et al; A novel skin penetration enhancer: evaluation by membrane diffusion and confocal microscopy J Pharm Sci 199 Sep-Dec; 2 (3): 99-107.

Ref. 5: Epidermal Structure and Function; Van Den Bougaard EH et al, Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2013) 133,s 104? -s 128, dol: 10,1038 / jid.2013.99.

Thus the “brick and cement” wall is formed, with rivets that hold the cells of the stratum corneum together. By this stage filaggrin has been broken down into natural moisturizing factor (NMF) and urocanic acid to ensure a moist normal skin with an acid pH to help fight off any harmful microbes wandering about.

The Emzaloid® carrier system also helps to restore normality by providing some of the ingredients (ceramides and EFAs) to help make the “cement” thus ensuring a normally constituted epidermis. The essential fatty acids (linoleic acid {omega 6} and linolenic acid {omega 3} further contribute by helping to reduce inflammation.

To ensure there is enough ?cement? it is best to use Linocream and/or Linoscalp after applying Linotar Gel 1%. Even if the GP / dermatologist / patient use another anti-psoriasis medication, Linocream and Linoscalp should be the “Go To” moisturisers.

How to use the Linotar Range Treatment System?


– Gently wash the lesions with a hypoallergenic soap and towel dry the lesions.

– Apply Linotar Gel 1% to the Allow to dry. If the lesion is still wet after 2 minutes you have applied too much of the Linotar Gel 1%.

– Apply Linocream to the lesions and gentlv rub it into the affected areas.

– Apply Linotar Gel two to three times a day and Linocream as often as you need to keep the skin soft and moisturised.


– Wash your hair with a hypoallergenic shampoo and towel

– Apply Linotar Gel 1% to the Allow drying. If the lesion is still wet after 2 minutes you have applied too much.

– Apply Linoscalp to the lesions and massage in

– Apply Linotar Gel two to three times a day (if practical) and Linoscalp as often as you need to keep the scalp soft and

So what have we achieved by using the Linotar Range Treatment System?

Arrested rapid division of cells in the basal layer of the epidermis

– Reduced inflammation

– Assisted in repairing the epidermis, resulting in a patient who can manage his/her psoriasis

Thus we have satisfied the rule of thumb set by Prof. Albert Kligman and acknowledged the wisdom of Richard Groves:

“Whenever you see inflamed skin, regardless of cause, the stratum corneum is leaky and permeable. But, if you repair the stratum corneum, that tells the underlying tissues that they don’t have to keep reacting like there is danger in the environment”. (Albert Kligman M.D. Ph.D.; 1919 2010).


1. Open Dermatol journal 2010, 4, 48-52

2. Journal of Investigative Derm 2012, 132, 2320-2331

3. J Clin Invest , Jan 25, 2013, online

4. Journal of Investigative Derm 2011, 131, 2263-2270

5. J Invest Derm 2003, 120, (3) 456-464

6. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 6 (11): 20- 27

7. US Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information

8. Product Package Inserts and/or Patient Information Leaflet

9. British Journal of Dermatology 2003; 149; 350-353

10 Journal of Dermatological Treatment (2003),14, 1-9

11. Link: Skintherapyletter/fp/2011/7.5/3.html

12. Psoriasis treatment guidelines: SA and USA Dermatological Association recommendations


Linocream and Eczema

Linocream® – barrier repair moisturizer, powered by Vitamin F and Meyer-Zall Laboratories’ (MZL) Emzaloid® Technology

The skin is the body’s largest organ, weighing almost 4 kg, covering 2 m2, but is only 2 mm thick. Without it we cannot survive, as it protects us from water loss that leads to dry skin and against irritants, bacteria and fungi that can cause skin infections. A healthy epidermis also provides natural protection against UV rays of the sun. It is the skin’s job to waterproof human beings and that task is performed by the epidermis. The top layer of the skin (stratum corneum) is similar to a wall of bricks and mortar. These “bricks” consist of keratin (same material as your nails) and the “mortar” is a combination of fats (ceramides, fatty acids) and cholesterol. Together they form a formidable protective barrier. Chronic skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis are:

  • unpleasant
  • embarrassing
  • annoying
  • have a negative impact on quality of life.

In the UK more than a million people suffer from eczema; affecting 20% of children and 3% of adults. The basic cause of eczema is complex with many interrelated biological pathways including disruption of the skin barrier and the reaction thereto by the body’s immune system.

  • More and more evidence points to the one fueling the other.
  • Some experts say inflammation is the primary reaction whilst others say it is a leaky skin.

A leaky epidermis (skin) is much like a leaky roof: unless you stop the leak it is not going to get better. The leakage can, however, be stopped by what experts call physiological moisturisers that supply the ingredients that the skin requires to stop the loss of water.

One of the problems with a leaky epidermis is that the skin cannot make two of the essential ingredients it requires. They are Omega 3 (Linolenic acid) and Omega 6 (Linoleic acid) and have to be taken orally or preferably applied topically to ensure a healthy skin. Without these essential lipids, the barrier is weakened; simply put, it is leaky.

A weak or damaged barrier allows harmful things like allergens, bacteria, and irritants to pass through into the deeper layers of skin, causing symptoms of dryness, itching, and irritation and is the trigger for a variety of skin diseases like eczema.

Linocream can help repair the epidermis because it contains Vitamin F

Vitamin F was discovered as far back as the 1920’s and in the same Laboratory where Vitamin E was discovered a few years earlier and ?is one of the best kept secrets for skincare. Vitamin F is a combination of different types of omegas which make up the barrier of your skin. Without vitamin F the skin’s barrier is compromised.

The indispensable Omega 6 (Linoleic acid) is probably the Super Star of the skin as it also helps with the formation of another critically important epidermal fat, Ceramide 1.

“The essential fatty acid, linoleic acid is of particular significance to skin health as it contributes to the formation of ceramides essential for the structure of the epidermal barrier”. (Dr Kendall, Univ. of Manchester, Biomembranes Journal).

In addition to the benefits provided by Vitamin F, Linocream is also boosted by the Emzaloid® transdermal delivery system which aids the penetration of the ingredients into the epidermis.

Linocream can be of help in restoring the epidermis to its normal function

  • Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are part and parcel of treating eczema and psoriasis
  • TCS are excellent for short-term use but doctors and patients alike are concerned about the negative effects that long-term use of TCS bring about.
  • Continuous application of TCS cause visible side effects such as atrophy, bleeding into the surface of the skin, spider veins and irreversible stretch marks.
  • All of this means that it makes sense to limit the ongoing/chronic use of topical corticosteroids (TCS).
  • These side effects can to a large extent be prevented by using a steroid sparing physiological moisturiser like Linocream in conjunction with TCS when treatment is started and to persist with Linocream when TCS treatment is discontinued; almost like a buddy system.

Linocream will continue to moisturize the skin, maintain a healthy epidermis and keep inflammation in check. All brought about by the wonders of Vitamin F; powered by Emzaloid® technology.

“Whenever you see an inflamed skin, regardless of cause, the stratum corneum is leaky and permeable. But if you repair the stratum corneum, that tells the underlying tissues that they don’t have to keep reacting like there’s danger in the environment”. (Albert Kligman, M.D., Ph.D.; 1919-2010).

How to Use the Linotar System?

Linotar Gel 1%:

Distilled Coal Tar, 10 mg/g (= 1% w/w, wet weight). Topical penetrating emulsion for the treatment of psoriasis and eczema of the skin and scalp

Main Body:

Lightly apply the Linotar Gel 1% to the affected areas. The Linotar Gel 1% will dry within 2 to 3 minutes. Linocream Moisturising Cream can now be applied to those affected areas. Repeat 2 to 3 times daily.


Towel dry hair after it has been washed with a hypo-allergenic shampoo. Apply Linotar Gel 1% to affected areas and allow to dry for 2 to 3 minutes. Apply Linoscalp leave-in Scalp Conditioner to affected areas on the scalp. Blow dry or let hair dry naturally. Linotar Gel 1% and Linoscalp leave-in Scalp Conditioner can be applied without washing hair. Repeat 2 to 3 times daily.


Cut the nails as short as possible. Apply the Linotar Gel 1% under the nail as far as possible and around the nail bed. Allow to dry for 2 to 3 minutes, then apply the Linocream Moisturising Cream to the same areas. Avoid peeling potatoes, tomatoes, onions etc. Wear cotton gloves when working with chemicals.


  • If your skin becomes increasingly sensitive to the Linotar treatment, please e-mail us at, call our Linotar Helpdesk (Canada & US toll-free:1-888-604-4561), or consult a physician.
  • Soaps and shampoos should be mild, hypo-allergenic and deodorant free. Ask your pharmacist or Help Line for suggestions.
  • Coal Tar is a photosensitizer. Avoid overexposure to sunlight.

Directions for use:

For adults and children over 12 years of age:

Make sure that all areas of the affected skin are clean.
Apply a thin layer of Linotar Gel 1% Penetrating Emulsion two to three times per day to these areas. Massage gently and leave to dry.

For use in children under 12 year of age and the elderly:

Linotar Gel 1% can be diluted in the palm of the hand by mixing with a few drops of freshly boiled water.

Make sure to keep the bottle closed after use and stored out of sight and reach of children!

In the morning:

Clean the affected area. Sparingly apply a thin layer of Linotar Gel 1%.
After Linotar Gel 1% Emulsion has dried (2-3 minutes), apply a thin layer of Linocream Moisturising Cream.

In the afternoon:

Sparingly apply a thin layer of Linotar Gel 1% onto the affected skin area, including the scalp.

Treatment of the skin: After applying Linotar Gel 1% Penetrating Emulsion (2-3 minutes), apply at thin layer of Linocream Moisturising Cream.

Treatment of the scalp: after Linotar Gel 1% Penetrating Emulsion has dried, gently rub in Linoscalp leave-in Scalp Conditioner and leave to dry.

In the evening:

Repeat the treatment of the afternoon.

Along with the recommendations given in the brochure to adapt to an appropriate life-style, this treatment regimen is the optimal Lino-range products therapy for psoriasis and eczema sufferers. Any deviations from this scheme may lead to a longer duration of treatment.

Directions for use on the scalp: apply Linoscalp leave-in Scalp Conditioner after washing the hair and rub gently when hair is still wet and leave to dry.

What is Linotar Gel 1% used for?

Psoriasis and eczema of the skin and scalp.

Linotar Gel 1% – how does it work?

Coal tar is mildly antiseptic and relieves itching.
It also acts as a ‘keratolytic’, which works to break down a protein which forms part of the skin structure called keratin. Skin thickening occurs due to the deposition of keratin. Coal tar helps to reduce the excessive hardening, thickening and scaling of the skin.


– Avoid exposure to sunlight or sunlamps.
– If exposure to sunlight cannot be avoided, use protective measures such as?? sun-creams or protective clothing.
– This medicine will stain skin, hair and fabric.
– Avoid contact with eyes, mucous membranes, genital and rectal areas.
– This preparation is for external use only.

Use Linotar Gel 1% with caution:

– Avoid contact with eyelids and all other mucosal surfaces
– Avoid direct contact with the eyes

Linotar Gel 1% is not to be used in:

Acute psoriasis (is sudden, severe outbursts of psoriasis).

Linotar Gel 1% should not be used if:

– You are allergic to one or any of its ingredients listed below. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist a.s.a.p. if you have previously experienced such an allergy!

– If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using Linotar Gel 1% and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding:

Certain medicines should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, other medicines may be safely used in pregnancy or breastfeeding, provided the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the unborn baby.
Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine. No Linotar Gel 1% safety information is available in pregnancy. Seek medical advice. No safety information is available in breastfeeding. Discuss with your doctor.

Side effects:

Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this type of medicine (coal tar). Because a side effect is stated here, it does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that particular, or any, side effect.

– Abnormal reaction of the skin to light, usually a rash (photosensitivity)
– Staining of skin and clothes
– Skin irritation

The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the drug’s manufacturer. For more information about any other possible risks associated with this medicine, please read the patient information provided with the medicine, or consult your doctor or pharmacist.

How can Linotar Gel 1% affect other medicines?

No known interactions, when applied to unbroken skin.


Active substance: Distilled Coal Tar, 10 mg/g (= 1% w/w, wet weight).

Other ingredients:

Complex of esterified essential fatty acids; PEG-40 hydrogenated Castor Oil; Sodium Propyl Paraben 0.05 % m/m; Vitamin E (DL-Alpha Tocopherol) 0.3 % m/m; Methyl Paraben 0.1% m/m; Polysorbate 80; Xanthan Gum; Industrial Methylated Spirits; purified Water.

Linotar – for Psoriasis and Eczema


Linotar® Gel 1%, also known as Exorex® Lotion 5% w/w (UK and Ireland) or Exorex® Gel 1% penetrating emulsion (U.S.A.), is a highly innovative topical dermatological preparation indicated for the treatment of Psoriasis and Eczema. The active ingredient is distilled coal tar. In addition, Linotar® Gel 1% features a sophisticated vehicle consisting of a specific combination of free essential fatty acids. Linotar®, as a result, has been successfully applied without most of the burdens that are usually associated with the use of some more conventional coal tar preparations.

Mode of action

Contrary to most traditional coal tar preparations, Linotar® Gel 1% produces an extremely rapid and almost complete penetration (1). The excipients have a transdermal carrier function, bringing coal tar much more efficiently through the affected skin. Thanks to this special feature and due to the general physical properties of Linotar® Gel 1%, the product does not provoke as much of the yellow staining that is common to coal tar products, nor does it produce the traditional strong coal tar smell: The product “disappears” within minutes, without leaving visible traces.

Linotar® Range Treatment System

Linotar® Gel 1% has been developed by Meyer Zall Laboratories of George, South Africa and was first launched in 1993 in its home market for both the indications psoriasis and eczema, as part of a complete treatment system that also included the specially developed compatible Linocream® Moisurising Cream and Linoscalp® leave-on Scalp Conditioner. Since 1993, the 100% equivalent product Exorex® Gel 1% has been successfully introduced in Australia, New Zealand, and in a number of African and Asian countries, as well as in the U.S.A., Canada, Israel, Ireland and the United Kingdom. In 1996 Exorex® Lotion 5% w/w was registered in Austria, Greece, The Netherlands and Luxembourg.

Clinically proven

Exorex® Gel 1% has been shown to be clinically and statistically equally effective as the vitamin D derivate calcipotriol (also known as Daivonex®, Dovonex® or Psorcutan® Cream) and superior to any coal tar in the treatment of psoriasis, through objective parameters and in patient preference scores. Results of a recently completed Austrian (University of Vienna, 2001) 40-patient clinical trial proves this point (2). These results closely match those of an earlier 18-patient US pilot study in which Exorex® Gel 1% is compared with the vitamin D derivate Dovonex® (calcipotriene) (3).


(1) Saunders James C J, Davis Henry J, Coetzee Linda, Botha Susan; Kruger Ansie E, Grobler, Anne. A Novel Skin Penetration Enhancer: Evaluation By Membrane Diffusion And Confocal Microscopy. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci ( 2(3):99-107, 1999.

Web link to Exorex Lotion (Gel 1%) / Linotar Gel 1% trans dermal carrier:

(2) Tzaneva S, Hönigsmann H, Tanew A. Observer-blind, randomized, intrapatient comparison of a novel 1% coal tar preparation (Exorex®) and Calcipotriol cream in the treatment of plaque type psoriasis. British Journal of Dermatoly 2003 Aug;149(2):350-3.

Web link to Exorex Lotion (Gel 1%) 40-patient clinical study:

(3) Veronikis, Irini E, Malabanan, Alan O, Holick Michael F. Comparison of Calcipotriene cream (Dovonex®) with a coal tar emulsion (Exorex®) in treating psoriasis in adults: a pilot study. Arch Dermatol 1999 Apr;135(4):474-5.

Web link to Exorex Lotion (Gel 1%) 18-patient pilot study:

What is Eczema?

What is Eczema? What causes Eczema?

Eczema is also known as atopic dermatitis, or atopic eczema (the most common form of eczema). Atopic eczema mainly affects children, but it can continue into adulthood or start later in life. The word eczema comes from the Greek word ekzein meaning “to boil out”; the Greek word ek means “out”, while the Greek word zema means boiling.

Eczema is a chronic skin condition in which the skin becomes itchy, reddened, cracked and dry. Approximately 30% of all skin-related GP visits in Western Europe result in a diagnosis of atopic eczema. It affects both males and females equally, as well as people from different ethnic backgrounds. Most GPs (general practitioners, primary care physicians) in Western Europe, North America and Australia say the number of people diagnosed each year with eczema is has been rising in recent years.

Atopy is the hereditary predisposition toward developing some hypersensitivity reactions, such as hay fever, asthma, chronic urticaria, and some types of eczema. Atopic eczema, therefore, means a form of eczema characterized by atopy – in other words, inherited eczema.

Approximately 80% of atopic eczema cases start before the age of 5, and a sizeable number develops it during their first year of life.

What are the symptoms of eczema?

As atopic eczema is a chronic disease symptoms are generally present all the time. A chronic disease is a long-term one; one that persists for a long time. However, during a flare-up symptoms will worsen and the patient will probably require more intense treatment.

Below are some common symptoms of atopic eczema (without flare-up):

– The skin may be broken in places.
– Some areas of the skin are cracked.
– The skin usually feels dry.
– Many areas of skin are itchy, and sometimes raw if scratched a lot.
– Itching usually worse at night.
– Scratching may also result in areas of thickened skin.
– Some areas of skin become red and inflamed.
– Some inflamed areas develop blisters and weep (ooze liquid).
– The skin has red to brownish-gray colored patches.
– Areas of skin may have small, raised bumps.

Although the patches may occur in any part of the body’s skin, they tend to appear on the hands, feet, arms, behind the knees, ankles, wrists, face, neck, and upper chest. Some patients have symptoms around the eyes, including the eyelids. Scratching around the eyes may eventually lead to noticeable loss of eyebrow and eyelash hairs. Babies tend to show symptoms on the face.

When there is a flare-up the previous symptoms still exist, plus some of the ones below:

The skin will be much more itchy.
Itchiness and scratching will make the skin redder, raw and very sensitive.
Many of the affected areas will feel hot.
The skin will be much more scaly and drier.
The raised bumps will be more pronounced and may leak fluid.
Blisters will appear.
The affected areas may be infected with bacteria.

Flare ups can last from a day or two to several weeks.

Patients with mild atopic eczema will generally have only small areas of dry skin which may itch sometimes. When symptoms are severe large areas of skin become very dry and the itching is constant. Many areas will ooze fluid.

A vicious circle can set in. It starts with unpleasant itching, then scratching which makes the itching worse, which makes the patient scratch more – eventually the skin can bleed. Children who get into this cycle can suffer serious sleep disruption and may find concentrating at school extremely challenging.

The following may worsen the symptoms of atopic eczema:

– Prolonged hot showers or baths.
– Allowing the skin to stay dry.
– Mental stress.
– Sweating.
– Rapid temperature changes.
– Dry air.
– Certain fabrics for clothing, such as wool.
– Cigarette smoke.
– Dust.
– Sand.
– Some soaps, solvents, or detergents

A Swedish study found that linalool, the most common fragrance ingredient used in shampoos, conditioners and soap is a powerful allergen for a significant number of people.

What are the causes of atopic eczema?

Experts say that people with eczema are born with it – it is a genetically inherited condition. It can be worsened with exposure to external or environmental factors such as pollen or pet fur, and internal factors such as hormone levels and stress.

In 2006, scientists from the University of Dundee, with collaborators in Dublin, Glasgow, Seattle and Copenhagen, discovered the gene that causes dry, scaly skin and predisposes individuals to eczema.

In 2009 a study carried out by scientists at the University of Edinburgh concluded that the defects in a particular gene known as the filaggrin gene are linked to a considerably amplified risk of developing allergic disorders such as eczema, rhinitis, and asthma.

The oily (lipid) barrier of skin is usually reduced in people with atopic eczema, compared to other people. The lipid barrier helps prevent water loss. If your barrier is reduced you will lose water faster and your skin will be drier. Several studies have been confirming this, including this one.

The immune system cells of people with atopic eczema release chemicals under the skin’s surface which may cause inflammation. Experts are not 100% sure why this happens. They just know that it is an immune system overreaction.

Even though scientists are fairly sure genetics are the primary cause, they do not yet know what the exact genetic cause is. The above-mentioned studies are giving us a better idea – but a great deal of further research is needed. 60% of children with atopic eczema have one parent with the same condition. Studies have shown that children run an 80% risk of developing eczema if both their parents have the condition.

Eczema linked to gut bacteria in children – children who have eczema have a wider range of bacteria in their gut compared to kids without the condition, researchers from the University of Turku, Finland, reported in the journal BMC Microbiology. The scientists noticed that the bacteria in the gut of children with eczema were more like those found in adults than other kids.

Recent studies are starting to reveal a picture of early life lifestyle habits that may reduce the risk of developing eczema later on, either during early childhood or later on in life. An infant diet that includes fish before the age of 9 months curbs the risk of developing eczema, a Swedish study reported.
Environmental factors that make atopic eczema symptoms worse
Some scientists say that environmental factors are the ones causing the number of recent eczema cases in the developing world to rise. They argue that it is highly unlikely that genetic factors would change in such a short time.

Environmental factors are also known as allergens – they cause the body’s immune system to overreact; an allergic reaction.

The three most common allergens for atopic eczema are:

– House dust mites (bed bugs)
– Pollen
– Pet fur

Children who are exposed to cats soon after birth may have an increased risk of developing eczema, according to a study carried out by researchers at the University of Arizona in Tucson, USA.

These three allergens are also the main ones that trigger asthma and hay fever.

Hard water

Several scientists have suggested that hard water may be bad for people with eczema. Scientists from the University of Portsmouth, England, are carrying out a study to find out whether installing a water-softener in the home might improve the symptoms of children with eczema. Results of their study should appear around the end of 2009.

Foods that may make atopic eczema symptoms worse

These are foods that typically cause allergic reactions in people with sensitive immune systems. These include:

– Milk (cow’s)
– Eggs
– Nuts
– Soya
– Wheat

About 10% of children with atopic eczema are affected by food allergens. Foods rarely affect the symptoms of adults with eczema.

Hormones can worsen symptoms

A significant proportion of women with eczema report that their symptoms worsen during their menstrual cycle. 30% of women have flare ups during the days preceding their menstrual period. 50% of women with eczema say their symptoms got worse when they were pregnant. These are all periods when a woman’s hormone levels change.

Mental stress can make eczema symptoms worse

Doctors are not sure what exactly it is that causes a worsening of symptoms during mental stress. Atopic eczema patients commonly report that their symptoms are likely to get worse when they are mentally stressed. It is possible that a vicious cycle could develop – the symptoms of eczema stress the patient, the resulting stress exacerbates the symptoms, etc.

Winter is usually worse than summer

Most patient who do not live near the equator find that their symptoms are worse in the winter than the summer, even though pollen is an important trigger.
Diagnosis of eczema
No laboratory test or skin test currently exists which can diagnose atopic eczema.

A GP is able to diagnose atopic eczema after examining the patient and asking some questions about his/her symptoms and medical history – this will include questions about the presence of eczema in close family relative. The doctor will also ask about some other allergy-related conditions, such as asthma and hay fever.

A number of diagnostic criteria to confirm diagnosis

A doctor in the UK will assess the patient’s skin against a number of diagnostic criteria in order to confirm an eczema diagnosis. The criteria include:

A long period with itchy skin – the patient has had itchy skin for the last 12 months.

Plus at least three of the criteria below:

Itching and irritation – itchiness and irritation in skin creases, such as the front of elbows, behind the knees, front of ankles, around the neck, or around the eyes.

Asthma or hay fever – the patient either has asthma or hay fever or has had them in the past. If the child is under four, the doctor will ask whether a close relative (brother, sister, mother, father) has asthma or hay fever.

Dry skin – the patient’s skin has been dry for the last 12 months.

When it started – the condition started when the patient was two years old, or less. (If the patient is under four years of age this criterion is not used).

Joints – eczema is present either where skin covers the joints or the parts of the body that flex, such as wrists, knees, or elbows.

If the patient meets these criteria (the first, plus at least three of the others) the UK doctor will not usually have to carry out any further testing to confirm diagnosis.

Identifying trigger factors during diagnosis

The doctor will try to find out what triggers worsen the patient’s symptoms. He/she will ask the patient questions about lifestyle, soaps and detergents used, diet, home environment, pets, where exactly the house is, etc.

Some doctors will ask the patient to keep a diary – the patient will note down such data as eating habits, clothes worn, what time of day symptoms are better or worse and where the patient was during those times, etc. The aim here is to identify as many trigger factors as possible.

What is the treatment for atopic eczema?

There is currently no cure for atopic eczema – there is no treatment that gets rid of it for good, as might be the case with surgery to cure blindness caused by cataracts. However, there are a variety of treatments which focus on the symptoms, as well as strategies to avoid triggers, and may improve the patient’s quality of life considerably.

A significant proportion of children with atopic eczema will find that their symptoms will improve as they get older.

Self-care – What the patient can do

Avoid scratching

Itchiness is a common part of eczema, and scratching is a natural reaction to deal with itching. Unfortunately, scratching will invariably further aggravate the skin and make symptoms worse. Scratching also raises the risk of infection.

Getting an adult to control his/her scratching is hard enough – it is even harder for children. Children will often not be able to control the urge to scratch. It is important that nails are kept short and clean. Babies may benefit from anti-scratch mittens.

Avoid trigger factors

A good doctor will have established a list of factors that trigger eczema flares. The patient should try to avoid them as much as possible. Parents/guardians need to remind children of triggers and help them devise strategies to avoid them – younger children may need to be reminded frequently.

People with atopic eczema usually avoid clothes made of synthetic fibers and opt for natural materials, such as cotton.

We know that dust mites are likely triggers for many people. However, most studies have shown that trying to eradicate them from your home is very time consuming and does not seem to be very effective in reducing the frequency and severity of flare-ups. Several patients have written into Medical News Today saying that when they get up in the morning they pull their sheets right back and do not make their beds for several hours, allowing the bed to be ventilated – this has helped them (bear in mind this information is not a study, and must be taken as anecdotal).


It is important to check with your doctor before undergoing any large change in diet, especially if the patient is a child. Breastfeeding mothers whose babies have atopic eczema should check with their GP before embarking on any significant diet change. Milk, eggs, and nuts are common triggers. Researchers from King’s College London found no evidence that exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of a baby eventually developing eczema.

The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care stresses that parents should be cautious about eliminating important foods like milk from their baby’s or child’s diet. In fact, their report says that avoiding foods may do more harm than good for children with atopic eczema, unless your child has a proven food allergy.

Regular fast-food consumption linked to eczema risk – children who consume fast foods at least three times a week are much more likely to have eczema as well as hay fever, researchers reported in the journal Thorax (January 2013 issue).

If you have identified the triggers you should avoid them. However, if a child’s trigger is milk he/she will need an alternative source of calcium. Always check with your doctor or a qualified nutritionist first before taking a major food source out of your or a child’s diet.

Complementary therapies

These are very popular among patients with atopic eczema. They include aromatherapy, massage, homeopathy, and some herbal remedies, to mention but a few. It is important to remember that although patients do report benefits, a lot of information one reads in books and on the internet is anecdotal. For therapy to be convincing, it should undergo proper clinical tests, usually carried out and compared to a placebo (dummy treatment). Before undergoing any complementary/alternative therapy, check it out carefully.

Researchers at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York reported that treatments consisting of Erka Shizheng Herbal Tea, a bath additive, creams and acupuncture, effectively treated patients with persistent atopic eczema. Their findings were presented at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Another study, carried out by Scientists at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, found that a traditional Chinese herbal concoction, consisting of Flos lonicerae (Japanese honeysuckle), Herba menthae (peppermint), Cortex moutan (root bark of peony tree), Atractylodes Rhizome (underground stem of the atractylodes herb) and Cortex phellodendri (Amur cork-tree bark) may help people with eczema and reduced their needs for medications.

Bleach baths

Researchers from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine reported that bleach baths offer an effective treatment for kids’ chronic eczema.


An emollient is an agent that softens and smoothes the skin – it can be a cream, lotion or ointment. They keep the skin supple and moist. Emollients are an important part of atopic eczema treatment. The skin of people with eczema is usually dry; emollients help keep them moisturized, which helps prevent cracking and irritation.

Finding the right emollient may be a question of trial-and-error at first. The patient may have to try several different ones before hitting on a suitable one. Patients usually end up needing different types of emollients for different parts of their body.

Some emollients are specific for very dry skin, while others are aimed at less dry skin. Ointments are generally prescribed for drier skin, while creams and lotions are usually prescribed for other skin types.

It is not uncommon for patients to find that an emollient is not longer as effective as it used to be. Others may start experiencing skin irritation after long-term use. If either case happens to you or your child, you should see your GP.

Applying an emollient – apply smoothly to the skin, following the direction the hair grows. Do not rub it in as this may irritate the skin. Gently dry the skin after washing and apply the emollient as soon as the skin is dry. Emollients must not be shared.

Creams and lotions are generally used for red, inflamed areas.

Ointments are usually used for dry areas that are not inflamed.

Apply often – Frequency is the key for effective emollient use. Do not stop applying it when the skin seems to be clear. Frequent use on known affected areas will significantly reduce the number of flare-ups, as well as their severity. Patient’s whose skin is very dry should have repeat applications every two to three hours. During flare-ups frequency of use is paramount – this is when the skin needs the most moisture. Applications during a flare-up should be both frequent and generous.

If your child has atopic eczema it is important that you liaise with his/her school. In the UK it is common for a child to have emollient supplies at home and at school.

Emollient instead of soap – emollient treatments should be used in place of soap. Soap irritates the skin if you have atopic eczema. In many countries it is possible to purchase emollient bath and shower additives. This measure will make a significant difference in the patient’s frequency and severity of flare-ups.

Side effects of emollients – some patients may develop a rash with certain ingredients in a specific emollient. That is why people commonly have to try out different ones when they first start. Some emollients contain paraffin and can be a fire hazard – store them carefully and do not use them near a naked flame. Emollients may make the surface of the bath and the floor of the shower cubicle more slippery.

Topical corticosteroids

In medicine topical means “applied on to the skin”. Corticosteroids rapidly reduce inflammation. If the patient’s skin is very red and inflamed the doctor may prescribe a topical corticosteroid.

Many parents or adult patients react with alarm when the doctor utters any word with “steroid” in it. They imagine anabolic steroids that bodybuilders use. Corticosteroids are not anabolic steroids, and when used correctly, they are a safe and effective treatment for eczema.

Applying a corticosteroid – apply to the affected area sparingly. Follow the instructions on the leaflet carefully. You can also ask the doctor, and if you cannot remember, ask a qualified pharmacist.

Applying a corticosteroid during a flare-up – the corticosteroid should not be applied more than twice daily. Most patients will only require one application per day. After the flare-up has cleared up you should continue for another 48 hours.

If the patient is using corticosteroids on a long-term basis, he/she should check carefully with the doctor on how and when to apply it.

If you have tried corticosteroids and symptoms have not improved you should see your doctor.

Alitretinoin (Toctino)

Alitretinoin is used for patients with severe, chronic hand eczema who have not responded to other treatments. A specialist skin doctor (dermatologist) needs to supervise treatment with alitretinoin. Alitretinoin is a retinoid, a type of medication that helps lower levels of irritation and itchiness associated with eczema. Treatment usually consists of swallowing one tablet a day for 12 to 24 weeks.

Alitretinoin must NOT be taken by pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers. In most countries alitretinoin is not recommended for women of child-bearing age.

Side effects of alitretinoin include headaches, dry skin, flushed skin, joint pain, and muscle pain. The following extremely rare side-effects also exist: hair loss, blurred and distorted vision, and nose bleeds. Anybody who experiences blurred vision when taking this medication should contact the dermatologist immediately.


This type of medication stops the effects of histamine, which our body releases when in contact with an allergen. If the effects of histamine can be stopped or reduced, symptoms of eczema, hay fever, and some other allergic conditions are often significantly reduced.

Sedating antihistamines can make some people feel drowsy and are generally prescribed for itchiness at night – their drowsiness side-effect will help some patients get a good night’s sleep. Sedating antihistamines are not usually prescribed for more than a couple of weeks at a time. They should be taken about one hour before going to bed. Sometimes drowsiness is still present the following day – it is important that the child’s school knows this. If the patient is an adult and feels drowsy the following morning he/she should not drive or operate heavy machinery.

Non-sedating antihistamines may be used on a long-term basis. They will help ease itching but will not make the patient feel drowsy.


If the eczema becomes infected the patient will probably need an antibiotic.

Oral antibiotic – An oral antibiotic will be prescribed if symptoms are very severe and infection has affected a large area. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic is flucloxacillin, which should be taken for seven days. If you or your child are allergic to penicillin a different antibiotic will be prescribed, perhaps erythromycin or clarithomycin.

Topical antibiotic – if symptoms are not so severe and the infection does not cover a large area the patient will most likely be prescribed a topical antibiotic – one that is applied directly onto the affected area. This will usually be an ointment or a cream.

The doctor may prescribe new supplies of topical medications in case your current ones have become infected.

Patients who have areas which are prone to recurrent infection may be prescribed a topical antiseptic, which is applied directly onto the targeted area of skin. Examples include chlorhexidine and triclosan.

Light Therapy (Phototherapy)

This involves the use of natural or artificial light. In its most simple form, all the patient has to do is expose himself/herself to controlled amounts of natural sunlight.

Other forms of phototherapy include using artificial ultraviolet A (UVA) or ultraviolet B (UVD) light, either on its own or in combination with drugs.

Light therapy is very effective. It is important that it is done with a qualified health care professional. Exposure to sunlight has many beneficial effects, but it does, however, also have risks if not controlled properly. Examples of risks include premature skin aging and a higher risk of developing skin cancer.

When to see a specialist

The GP may refer a patient to a specialist skin doctor (dermatologist) if:

– The patient has not responded to treatment.
– The GP is uncertain about what is causing the eczema.
– The patient insists the GP refers him/her or the child to a specialist.
– The GP thinks the patient would benefit from specialist treatment, such as ultraviolet light exposure, bandaging treatments (wet wraps), or calcineurin inhibitors.

Complications of atopic eczema


If the skin becomes dry and cracked there will be an opportunity for bacteria to penetrate. The likelihood of this happening is greater for people with eczema. Scratching the eczema increases the risk of infection further.

A bacterium called Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) commonly infects people with eczema. An infection with S. aureus will make the eczema much worse, causing increased redness, oozing of fluid and crusting of the skin, making it virtually impossible for the skin to heal naturally (without antibiotics).

Psychological effects

The mental stress of living with eczema can have a psychological impact on the sufferer, especially if it started very early in life. Children with atopic eczema are much more likely to have behavioral problems at school, compared to their peers who do not have it. Parents sometimes comment that their child with atopical eczema is much more clingy than their other children.

The stress can also come from other people. More than a quarter of patients with atopic eczema have been bullied or teased because of their skin condition, according to an international study.

Children with eczema frequently suffer from a lack of self-confidence. Family support and encouragement is a crucial factor in helping them overcome this. If your child’s self-confidence appears to be seriously undermined, talk to a health care professional, as well as the staff at his/her school.

Sleep problems

The majority of children with atopic eczema have sleep-related problems. Lack of sleep can have an impact on the patient’s physical and mental health.

Brought to you by Linotar, in the interests of promoting an awareness about psoriasis and eczema. Linotar offers relief from the itch, burn and sting associated with psoriasis and eczema.



湿疹也被称为异位性皮炎或异位性湿疹(湿疹的最常见的形式)。异位性湿疹,主要影响儿童,但它可以持续到成年或成年以后才发作。濕疹(eczema) 來自古希臘文ekzein, 意思是“沸騰而溢出”;希腊字EK意思是“出去”,而希腊字zema表示“沸騰”。


遗传性过敏症是遗传性易患病的体质, 傾向发展某些過敏反應,如枯草熱、哮喘、慢性蕁麻疹,和某些类型的湿疹。异位性濕疹,因此,意味着濕疹的形式是以遗传性过敏为特征 , 换句话说就是,遗传的湿疹。



就如异位性湿疹是一种慢性疾病,它的症状通常一直存在,慢性疾病是一个长期性的; 持续很长一段时间。然而,急性发作期间症状会恶化,而且患者可能需要更强烈的治疗。







轻度过敏性湿疹患者,一般只有小面积的皮肤干燥,有时候会发痒。当症状严重变成大面积时, 皮肤会变得非常干燥,发痒会一持续,很多地方可能会渗出液体。

恶性循环会发生,从不愉快的瘙痒开始,搔抓会使发痒变得更糟糕,这让病人抓的更厉害 ,最终会使皮肤流血。小孩子进入这个循环,睡眠会受到严重干扰,也可能发现在学校,集中精神学习是很困难的。





专家说,人类的湿疹是天生的 – 这是一种基因遗传条件。它可以被恶化,因为暴露于外部或环境因素;如花粉或宠物皮毛,和内部因素;例如荷尔蒙分泌和压力。





尽管科学家们相当肯定遗传是主要的原因,他们还不知道确切的遗传原因是什么,上述研究是给我们一个更好的想法 – 但大量的进一步研究是必要的。60%的儿童的过敏性湿疹和父母其中一位的情况会相同,研究显示,如果父母双方都有这情况, 儿童就有80%的风险会得到湿疹。

芬兰图尔库大学研究人员在BMC微生物学杂志上发表,湿疹与儿童肠道细菌有关, 和没有湿疹的孩子相比,有湿疹的孩子肠道里有更多细菌,。科学家们发现,在湿疹儿童肠道的这种细菌,更容易在成人体内找到,比在其他孩子体内更容易找到。





环境因素也被称为过敏原 – 它们会导致人体的免疫系统反应过度; 过敏反应。














医生们不知道究竟是什么原因,导致精神紧张的时候湿疹症状会恶化,过敏性湿疹患者通常说,他们的症状在精神压力大时可能会恶化。这样的恶性循环是可能产生 – 湿疹带给患者压力,结果压力加剧了症状。




全科医生有能力诊断异位性湿疹,是透过检查和询问病患,他/她的症状和病史的一些问题, 包括家族亲戚有无湿疹。 医生还会问一些其他过敏相关的情况,例如哮喘和花粉热。



长时间皮肤发痒 – 在过去12个月期间,患者有皮肤发痒情况。

发痒和刺激 – 瘙痒和红肿的皮肤皱褶,如肘部的前面、膝盖后方、脚踝的前面、脖子周围或眼睛周围。

哮喘或花粉症 -患者不是现在有哮喘或花粉症,就是以前得过。如果是四岁以下的小孩子,医生会问近亲(兄弟,姐妹,母亲,父亲)是否有哮喘或花粉症。

干性皮肤 – 过去12个月期间,患者的皮肤是干燥的。

什么时候开始有湿疹 – 患者在两岁或以下开始有湿疹。 (如果患者4岁年龄以下,就不适用这个标准)。

关节 – 湿疹不是出现在皮肤覆盖的关节,就是身体会弯曲的部位,如手腕、膝盖或肘部。




有些医生会要求病人写日记 – 患者会记下饮食的数据、穿什么衣服、什么时候症状是好或是坏、发生这些症状的时候患者是在那里,目标是尽可能找出最多的触发因素。


目前还没有过敏性湿疹治愈的药 – 没有任何的治疗是可以永远摆脱湿疹,就像手术治疗白内障引起的失明。但是,有多种针对症状的治疗方法,如同用策略避免触发湿疹一样,而且可以相当地改善患者的生活质量。


自我保健 – 病人可以做什么



让一个成年人控制他/她的搔抓已经是很困难了 – 对小孩子更难。孩子们会常常无法控制冲动的搔抓,重要的是要保持剪短指甲和清洁, 戴抗划伤手套对婴儿可能会有助益。


一位好的医生会建立一份触发湿疹因素的清单,患者应尽量避免接触,家长/监护人需要提醒孩子触发湿疹的因素是什么,帮助他们制定策略来避免 – 年幼的孩子可能需要经常提醒。


我们都知道,尘螨是很多人容易触发湿疹的因素。然而,大多数研究显示,你试图从你家消灭它们是非常耗费时间的, 也似乎并没有非常有效地减少湿疹发作频率和程度。好几位病人都写信给今日医学新闻说:当他们早上起床,他们会拉好他们的床单,而且几个小时内不整理他们的床,使床通风 – 这有助于他们(请记住此信息不是一个研究,而且必须被视为轶事)。



德国质量和效率卫生保健机构强调,家长应谨对待有关删除他们的婴儿或儿童的饮食上重要的食物,如牛奶。 事实上,他们的报告中说明,对有过敏性湿疹的儿童,避免吃那些食物可能是弊大于利,除非你的孩子已经被证明有食物过敏。

定期速食消费与湿疹风险的关联; 研究人员发表在Thorax杂志(2013年1月号), 一个星期购买速食至少三次的孩子,更容易有湿疹和花粉症,。



有一些治疗方法在过敏性湿疹患者中很受欢迎, 包括芳香疗法、按摩、顺势疗法,以及一些草药,仅举几例。重要的是要记住,虽然说对患者有好处,书上和网路上大量的信息是轶事。治疗要有说服力,应进行适当的临床试验,通常进行和比较一种试验药物用的无效对照剂 (虚拟治疗),在接受任何补充/替代治疗之前,都需要仔细检查。

在纽约西奈山医院的研究人员提出, 治疗包括用Erka Shizheng凉茶,洗澡添加剂,面霜和针灸,有效治疗了持续过敏性湿疹的患者。他们的研究结果发表在2009年美国学院的过敏哮喘和免疫学的大会上。



西北大学医学院的研究人员报告提出, 漂白浴提供患有慢性湿疹的儿童一种有效的治疗。


润肤剂是软化和平滑皮肤的药剂 – 它可以是乳膏剂、乳液或软膏。它们是用来保持肌肤水嫩滋润,润肤剂是过敏性湿疹治疗的重要部分。患有湿疹的皮肤一般是干燥的,润肤剂有助于保持皮肤的滋润,这有助于防止皮肤开裂和刺激。



What is Psoriasis?

What is Psoriasis? What causes Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a dry, scaly skin disorder. Doctors believe that it is genetic and is caused by the immune system being mistakenly “triggered”, resulting in skin cells being produced too quickly. This is why it is sometimes also called an autoimmune disease.

Normally, skin cells take about 21-28 days to replace themselves. However, in patients with psoriasis they take around 2-6 days. Psoriasis affects approximately up to 3% of people globally and usually develops in patients between age 11 and age 45. Despite the fact that it is not a contagious disorder, people with the condition can sometimes suffer from social exclusion and discrimination.

What are the symptoms of psoriasis?

Normally there is a constant shedding of dead cells. However, due to the acceleration of the replacement process, both dead and live cells accumulate on the skin surface. Often this causes red, flaky, crusty patches covered with silvery scales, which are shed easily.

Psoriasis can occur on any part of the body although it is most commonly found on the elbows, knees, lower back and the scalp. It can also cause intense itching and burning.

Who is at risk?

Psoriasis affects approximately 3% of people globally. It can start at any age, but most often develops between the ages of 11 and 45, often at puberty.

The condition is not contagious and most people have only small patches of their body affected.

There is a genetic link and it tends to run in families. About 30% of people with one first degree relative with psoriasis develop the condition.

This genetic tendency appears to need to be triggered by infection; certain medicines, including ibuprofen and lithium; psychological factors, including stress; or skin trauma.

There is no way of predicting who will develop psoriasis. 50-60% of people who first experience it do not know of anyone else in their family who has had it.

What is plaque psoriasis?

About 80% of those who have psoriasis have this form of chronic stabile plaque psoriasis. It is characterized by raised, inflamed, red lesions covered by a silvery white scale. It is typically found on the elbows, knees, scalp and lower back, although it can occur on any area of the skin.

What is inverse psoriasis?

Inverse psoriasis is found in the armpits, groin, under the breasts, and in other skin folds around the genitals and the buttocks.

This type of psoriasis first shows up as lesions that are very red and usually lack the scale associated with plaque psoriasis. It may appear smooth and shiny.

Inverse psoriasis is particularly subject to irritation from rubbing and sweating because of its location in skin folds and tender areas. It is more common and troublesome in overweight people and people with deep skin folds.

What is erythrodermic psoriasis?

Erythrodermic psoriasis is a particularly inflammatory form of psoriasis that often affects most of the body surface. It generally appears on people who have unstable plaque psoriasis, where lesions are not clearly defined. It is characterized by periodic, widespread, fiery redness of the skin.

The erythema (reddening) and exfoliation (shedding) of the skin are often accompanied by severe itching and pain. Erythrodermic psoriasis “throws off” the body chemistry, causing protein and fluid loss that can lead to severe illness.

Edema (swelling from fluid retention), especially around the ankles, may also develop along with infection.

The body’s temperature regulation is often disrupted, producing shivering episodes. Infection, pneumonia and congestive heart failure brought on by erythrodermic psoriasis can be life threatening. People with severe cases of this condition are often hospitalized.

What is guttate psoriasis?

This often starts in childhood or young adulthood and resembles small, red, individual spots on the skin that are not normally as thick or as crusty as lesions of plaque psoriasis.

A variety of conditions have been known to bring on an attack of guttate psoriasis, including upper respiratory infections, streptoccocal infections, tonsillitis, stress, injury to the skin and the administration of certain drugs (including antimalarials, lithium and beta-blockers).

This form of psoriasis may resolve on its own, occasionally leaving a person free of further outbreaks, or it may clear for a time only to reappear later as patches of plaque psoriasis.

What is pustular psoriasis?

Primarily seen in adults, pustular psoriasis is characterized by white pustules (blisters of noninfectious pus) surrounded by red skin. It is not an infection, nor is it contagious.

This relatively unusual form of psoriasis affects fewer than 5% of all people with psoriasis.

It may be localized to certain areas of the body, for example, the hands and feet. Pustular psoriasis also can be generalized, covering most of the body. It tends to go in a cycle: reddening of the skin followed by formation of pustules and scaling.

See also: Meyer Zall Laboratories’ page:

Brought to you by Linotar, in the interests of promoting an awareness about psoriasis and eczema. Linotar offers relief from the itch, burn and sting associated with psoriasis and eczema.












这种遗传倾向需要由感染来触发; 因为某些药物,包括有布洛芬和锂,心理因素;包括压力或是皮外伤。





















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